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Dr. John Money 1921-2006
Hopkins pioneer in gender identity
By Kelly Brewington
Baltimore Sun reporter
July 9, 2006
Dr. John Money, one of the nation's pre-eminent sex researchers who pioneered the study of gender identity and helped establish Johns Hopkins as the first hospital in the country to perform adult sex-change operations, died Friday. He was 84.
The controversial scholar, who coined the term "gender role," died a day before his 85th birthday at St. Joseph Medical Center in Towson of complications from Parkinson's disease, which he had battled for several years.
Dr. Money did groundbreaking research as director of the Psychohormonal Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University Hospital. He developed hormonal treatment to improve self-control of sex offenders and dedicated research to the virtually unexplored topic of infants born with ambiguous sex organs.
"People never thought about that. Before, you had male animals and female animals, and that was it," said Dr. Gregory K. Lehne, an assistant professor of medical psychology at Hopkins and protege of Dr. Money, whom he called "a genius."
"But he taught us gender is much more significant than having two sexes," Dr. Lehne said yesterday. "He identified what it means to be male and what it means to be female, and what it means to be in-between."
Dr. Money's theories also challenged taboos of 1950s-era sexuality, establishing the notion of gender roles and gender identity, terms that helped shape modern gender studies.
His most memorable and criticized work was advocating sex-change operations for patients confused over their gender, a position that was denounced by some colleagues who favored counseling instead of surgery. In 1979, Hopkins announced that it no longer would perform the operations.
His belief that gender could be assigned to a child before age 3 played out in a radical experiment that proved devastating for him and the child upon whom it was performed.
Canadian parents of twin boys sought Dr. Money's advice in 1967 after one of their sons suffered a botched circumcision. Dr. Money advised them that with hormones and sex-change surgery, the child could be raised as a girl.
But by the time Brenda was a teen, it became clear the plan wasn't working. Brenda became known as a boy, David Reimer, who later was the subject of the 2000 book As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl, by John Colapinto. In the book, Mr. Reimer decried the experiment and spoke of his anguish. Mr. Reimer committed suicide in 2004.
Dr. Money refused to speak publicly on the subject, said niece Sally Hopkins of Baltimore. "I think it devastated him," Dr. Lehne said. "The controversy led to him being kind of withdrawn and somewhat bitter after seeing himself as misinterpreted and not being able to do anything about it."
Dr. Money believed that infants were born gender-neutral and that environmentctors, including biology, that determined gender.
"We shouldn't ask whether it's heredity or environment; that was a 19th-century way of looking at it. Today we know it's both," Dr. Money said in a 1982 article in The Sun. "It seems that every child is born with some predisposition to go both ways. Which way it will finally go is determined by its environment."
Despite the criticism of his views, Dr. Money continued his research as professor emeritus of medical psychology and pediatrics, and he continued to lead an eccentric lifestyle, said Dr. Lehne. He purchased his clothes from secondhand stores and
rarely threw away anything that he thought could be reused.
"Having grown up poor, he saved everything; every envelope that came into the office, he would use again," Dr. Lehne said. "He carried this bag, and would take all the leftover bits of food home whenever he went out to dinner."
Dr. Eileen Higham, a clinical psychologist who worked for Dr. Money for several years in the 1970s, said: "As a person, I found him an outstanding intellect but not easy to get along with. I think he was widely misunderstood because he did not fit into the
Born in New Zealand in 1921, Dr. Money moved to the United States in 1947 to study at the Psychiatric Institute of the University of Pittsburgh.
"He jumped on the first passenger ship to sail after the Second World War," said Ms. Hopkins said. "It was an exciting time, and he jumped right away onto this new science called psychology and came to America."
He left Pittsburgh for Harvard University, where he earned a doctorate in 1952 before moving to Baltimore. Music and art competed with science for Dr. Money's attention, said Ms. Hopkins, who lived next door to Dr. Money's modest rowhouse in East Baltimore.
Dr. Money lived within walking distance of the Hopkins medical campus for more than 40 years. The house boasted an eclectic collection of anthropological art he had amassed from traveling around the world, including a stint studying aboriginal communities.
"Anyone who visited his home would spend hours in there; it was like a museum," said Ms. Hopkins. "He had old glass-fronted cabinets full of artifacts, rocks and things."
Much of Dr. Money's collection now sits in a gallery in the town of Gore, New Zealand, in a wing named after him.
A collection of Dr. Money's professional writings is housed at the library of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University. Liana Zhou, head of the library, said both Dr. Money and Dr. Alfred Kinsey were trailblazers in sexual behavior research.
Although he lived alone most of his life - he was married but quickly divorced in the 1950s and had no children - Dr. Money entertained friends and kept in touch with a large extended family that includes eight nieces and nephews and "hundreds of relatives in New Zealand," Ms. Hopkins said.
Until the end, it was clear his greatest love was research, she said. Dr. Money chronicled his battle with Parkinson's, and the beginnings of dementia, in his signature way.
"He used to write about the experience of dying from Parkinson's and dementia and what it was like on the inside," Ms. Hopkins said. "He was always collating, identifying and cataloging things his whole life. I was amazed that there was still something inside him that wanted to teach people."
Family and friends are planning a memorial service for September. Dr. Money made arrangements to have his body donated to the Maryland Anatomy Board.
Copyright © 2006, The Baltimore Sun
Pioneer Sex Researcher Dies at 84
- By BRIAN WITTE, Associated Press Writer
Sunday, July 9, 2006
(07-09) 15:46 PDT BALTIMORE, (AP) --
Dr. John Money, a psychologist and sex researcher who coined the terms "gender identity" and "gender role" and was a pioneer in studies of sexual identity, has died. He was 84.
Money died Friday at St. Joseph Medical Center in Towson, said Vivienne Stearns-Elliott, a hospital spokeswoman. Money's niece, Sally Hopkins, said Sunday her uncle died of complications from Parkinson's disease.
Money was born in New Zealand and immigrated to the United States in 1947. He conducted research for about 50 years at Johns Hopkins University, where he was a professor of medical psychology.
Money believed a person's gender identity was determined by an interaction between biological factors and upbringing. That represented a break from past thinking, in which gender identity was largely believed to be caused only by biological factors.
"He really developed that entire field of study," said Dr. Gregory K. Lehne, a Money protege and an assistant professor of medical psychology at Johns Hopkins. "Without him, that whole field of study might not have existed."
Money advised parents on what sex they should raise hermaphrodites — people born with characteristics of both sexes — to be. He also worked with people who were born with normal sex organs but did not identify with the gender they had been raised to be.
"He pioneered the concepts related to this and the psychological aspects of sex reassignment," Lehne said.
Lehne said Money appeared to enjoy the controversy his work raised because it provoked people to think in different ways about gender.
Money was involved in a highly publicized case of a boy who was raised as a girl after suffering a seared penis while being circumcised in 1966.
David Reimer was raised as "Brenda" after Money advised his parents to remove the rest of his male genitalia and recommended female hormone treatment.
Reimer was 15 when he learned his true identity and rejected further treatment as a girl. He committed suicide in 2004 at the age of 38 after failed investments drove him into poverty.
Lehne said Money did not talk publicly about the case and Hopkins said her uncle did so out of respect for the family.
"He had total sympathy and distress over the situation the family was in," she said.
Money was married but quickly divorced in the 1950s. He had no children and is survived by eight nieces and nephews and other relatives, Hopkins said.
NZ sex researcher John Money dies
TUESDAY , 11 JULY 2006
By DAN EATON
Controversial New Zealand-born sex researcher John Money, who helped pioneer sex-change surgery in the United States, has died.
Money, who was Kiwi writer Janet Frame's psychologist, was 84.
An essay by historian Michael King on the life of the eccentric professor of medical psychology at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, in the United States, is due to be published this month.
New Zealand film-maker Peter Jackson may be considering a movie featuring Money.
The essay is the last known complete work written by King, who died in a car accident in 2004.
Money had donated his large art collection, amassed while travelling around the world, to the Eastern Southland Gallery in Gore, which had impressed him during a visit with King.
The December 2003 opening of the John Money Wing was attended by Prime Minister Helen Clark and was one of Frame's last public outings before she died.
"We are very sad that John is gone because he was a good supporter," gallery curator Jim Geddes, who became a friend of the renowned sex researcher, said yesterday.
"Obviously, he was very keen that his collection would come back to New Zealand and he entrusted us with the gift."
King's work, titled The Splendours of Civilisation, was due out this week, Geddes said.
Money died last Saturday in a Baltimore hospital, a day before his 85th birthday, after a bad fall. He had also been suffering from Parkinson's disease.
Visitors to Money's Baltimore home had found it crammed with African sculpture, Aboriginal paintings, Polynesian carving and contemporary art, much of which is now in Gore.
In his final essay, King places Money in the generation of 20th-century artists, writers and academics who helped weave the cultural fabric of New Zealand.
"We kept him up to date with what was happening and, of course, he was greatly interested," said Geddes of Money's final years.
"He was pleased he got to see it in its new home. It has had very positive spin-offs for a small town."
Jackson reportedly bought the rights several years ago to a book about a botched sex-change operation involving Money.
Money's most criticised work was advocating sex-change surgery for people confused over their gender. He coined the term "gender identity" and advocated that gender could be assigned to a child.
It was an idea that played out in a tragic experiment that had a devastating effect on the young patient and Money.
A Canadian couple sought Money's help in 1967 after one of their twin sons had a botched circumcision. Money suggested a sex-change operation and hormone treatment.
But by the time the child, named Brenda, was a teenager, it was clear there were difficulties, and the young man changed his name to David Reimer.
Reimer spoke angrily of the experiment in interviews for a book published in 2000. It was titled As Nature Made Him: the Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl.
"I think it devastated him," Dr Gregory Lehne, an assistant professor of medical psychology at Johns Hopkins, said of Money in recent comments to the Baltimore Sun newspaper. "The controversy led to him being kind of withdrawn and somewhat bitter."
Money was born in Morrinsville, Waikato, in 1921 and attended Hutt Valley High School before studying psychology at Victoria University and later earning a doctorate from Harvard University.
He moved to Baltimore in 1951, and is survived by his brother Don and sister Joy Hopkins.
New Zealand Herald
Kiwi sexologist dies in US hospital
Monday July 10, 2006
Renowned sexologist and psychologist John Money has died on his birthday.
The 85-year-old expatriate passed away in a Baltimore Hospital on Saturday, the 20th anniversary of the gay law reform bill in New Zealand which he was influential in getting passed.
Dr Money's nephew, Gerard Murphy, said he had been suffering from Parkinson's disease and had a bad fall last Sunday.
He was taken to St Joseph's Hospital in Baltimore with a fractured nose and left sinus bone but deteriorated throughout the week and was comatose when he died.
Dr Money had been nursed by his niece Sally Hopkins. She was with him when he died.
Mr Murphy said Dr Money, a close friend of historian Michael King and writer Janet Frame, was delighted to find out last week that a manuscript believed to be one of the last complete essays written by Dr King was to be released.
Dr King wrote the essay about Dr Money's patronage of the arts to complement the John Money Wing of the Eastern Southland Gallery in Gore.
"Sally read the story out to him a few days before he died," Mr Murphy said.
Born in Morrinsville in 1921 to a Brethren family, Dr Money attended Hutt Valley High School and went on to study psychology at Victoria University before going to the United States.
He has a PhD from Harvard University and has been based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore since 1951.
Dr Money is survived by his brother Don, who lives in Wellington, and sister Joy Hopkins, who lives in Toronto. His body will be donated to science.
Tizard: Condolences on death of Dr John Money
Monday, 10 July 2006, 5:55 pm
Press Release: New Zealand Government
Hon Judith Tizard Associate Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage
Media release 10 July 2006
Tizard expresses condolences on death of Dr John Money
Judith Tizard Associate Arts Culture & Heritage Minister today expressed her condolences on the death of Dr John Money, the New Zealand-born philanthropist.
Dr Money, a Professor of medical psychology at Johns Hopkins University, died in Baltimore (USA) on Friday aged 85.
"John Money was one of our early philanthropists - he passionately supported the literary and visual arts both here and internationally," said Judith Tizard.
"He will best be remembered in New Zealand as a close friend and an early and instrumental supporter of Janet Frame.
"Money will also be warmly remembered for gifting his world-class art collection to the Eastern Southland Gallery in Gore, which attracts national and international visitors."
The Prime Minister Helen Clark opened the John Money Wing in 2003 which was made possible by Money's generous bequest. The collection includes Australian Aboriginal, African, and indigenous and contemporary American works, along with works by significant New Zealand artists, such as Rita Angus and Theo Schoon.
「ブレンダと呼ばれた少年」復刊問題 - TransNews