TV & Radio
Girls less likely to use condoms than boys
Friday October 14, 2005
Researchers studying the sexual habits of teenagers have found that girls are more likely to ignore condoms than boys.
The study also revealed that black boys were more likely to suffer from sexual health problems than their Asian or white classmates because they lose their virginity at an earlier age.
Staff at Coventry University's Health Services Research Centre interviewed more than 3,300 pupils aged between 12 and 17 in the Midlands and the north-east England. One in four was said to be sexually active with half the active girls having sex without condoms, compared with 42% of the boys.
The New York Times
October 15, 2005
Preventing the Spread of AIDS
For years, doctors and policy makers have suspected that male circumcision is a powerful protector against AIDS. Now a new study in South Africa has found that circumcision reduces men's risk of H.I.V. infection by more than 65 percent. If the results are confirmed by two similar studies in progress, circumcision may offer a way to curb the AIDS explosion in some of the most affected nations.
Researchers have long noted that in Africa, Muslim countries where males are routinely circumcised have much lower H.I.V. infection rates than predominantly Christian ones where circumcision isn't widespread. But other factors could have mattered, like Islam's prohibition on drinking alcohol, which could reduce risky behavior.
The South Africa study is the first to offer a high scientific standard of evidence that circumcision is responsible. The study, by French and South African researchers, recruited young men who were H.I.V.-negative and uncircumcised, as are most men in South Africa. Half were randomly assigned to be circumcised. After adjustment for other factors, circumcision reduced the risk of H.I.V. infection by two-thirds during the 21 months of the study. The difference was so great that the trial was stopped and the other men were immediately offered circumcision. Two similar studies with very different groups of people are under way in Uganda and Kenya. It may take two years to get results.
The most likely theory about why circumcision works is that the penis's foreskin has cells that are particularly receptive to the AIDS virus. The studies are looking at only whether circumcision protects men from infection. Circumcised men may also be less likely to transmit the virus, but the current studies are not examining that. Even if circumcision doesn't make a man less contagious, it helps protect everyone by lowering the infection rate.
Circumcision is no easy sell, but it is at least widely performed and accepted in Africa. If an AIDS vaccine were suddenly discovered that could prevent 7 out of 10 new infections, the world would be rejoicing. AIDS policy makers should be discussing how to promote circumcision so they can be ready to act immediately if the Kenya and Uganda studies confirm the good news in South Africa.
Germany reports sharp rise in HIV infections
05 Oct 2005 12:31:50 GMT
By Louis Charbonneau
BERLIN, Oct 5 (Reuters) - The number of confirmed HIV infections in Germany rose sharply in the first half of this year, which the government said was a worrying trend that indicated the deadly virus was not being taken seriously enough.
The number of HIV infections jumped to 1,164 in the first half of 2005, a 20 percent rise over the first half of 2004, the Robert Koch Institute, the government's central disease control centre, said in a statement.
Although the number of cases is not huge when compared with the hardest hit countries in Africa and Asia, Germany's health ministry said the trend was worrying and may indicate a failure of some people to view HIV/AIDS as a serious threat.
"The German health minister considers this a serious development and says the rise in HIV infections is worrying. Unfortunately, it is often the case that HIV/AIDS is no longer taken seriously as a life-threatening disease," ministry spokeswoman Dagmar Reitenbach told a government news conference.
Reinhard Kurth, president of the Robert Koch Institute, said it was necessary to explain clearly to the public that there is no way of curing the HIV virus, which gradually destroys the immune systems of its victims.
"More efforts must be made to explain and inform people that despite an improvement in therapy, there is no cure for this disease," he said.
The institute said homosexual males accounted for nearly 60 percent of the new HIV infections.
"The risk of HIV infection for male homosexual contact in Germany is nearly twice what it was 12 years ago," it added.
The institute said the HIV risk for males was roughly 7.5 times greater than for women in Germany. Most of the new infections were in males between the ages of 25 and 45.
The most significant HIV risk factor for women in Germany is sexual contact with males from other high-risk groups -- men from countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, intravenous drug users and men who have had homosexual contact.
The institute said Germany's large urban centres -- Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne and Frankfurt -- had the highest HIV risk.
An estimated 40 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2004. Africa, with about 25 million cases, is the most seriously affected region of the globe.
About half of all people with the virus are women.
SPIEGEL ONLINE - 05. Oktober 2005, 16:53
Zahl der HIV-Infektionen steigt dramatisch
Die Zahl der HIV-Infektionen in Deutschland ist sprunghaft gestiegen. Im ersten Halbjahr 2005 haben sich 20 Prozent mehr Menschen mit dem Aids-Erreger angesteckt als in der ersten Hälfte des vergangenen Jahres.
Berlin - Nach den jüngsten Berechnungen des Berliner Robert-Koch-Instituts (RKI) haben sich von Januar bis Juni 1164 Menschen mit dem Aids-Virus infiziert. Das waren rund 20 Prozent mehr registrierte Fälle als im entsprechenden Zeitraum des vergangenen Jahres. Es seien auch die meisten Neuansteckungen seit Beginn der detaillierten Berechnungen des Instituts im Jahr 1993, sagte RKI-Experte Ulrich Marcus in Berlin.
In fast 60 Prozent aller Fälle seien homosexuelle Männer betroffen gewesen, teilte das Institut mit. Nur 17 Prozent der neuen Virusträger hätten sich bei heterosexuellen Kontakten infiziert. Sechs Prozent seien Drogenkonsumenten, die sich durch Spritzen infizieren, heißt es im jüngsten RKI-Bericht. Die übrigen Betroffenen, rund 18 Prozent, stammten aus Ländern mit hohen HIV- und Aidsraten.
Das Risiko, sich mit HIV anzustecken, sei für Männer mit gleichgeschlechtlichen Kontakten derzeit so groß wie nie in den vergangenen zwölf Jahren. Inzwischen sei die Gefahr bereits fast doppelt so hoch wie noch 2001. Dies habe eine Auswertung der HIV-Erstdiagnosen ergeben, die von den Untersuchungslaboratorien nach Berlin gemeldet wurden.
"Die Entwicklung dieser vermeidbaren Infektion gibt Anlass zur Sorge", sagte RKI-Präsident Reinhard Kurth. Die Hauptursache sehen die Forscher darin, dass selbst bei neuen oder kaum bekannten Sexpartnern immer öfter auf Kondome verzichtet werde. HIV-Experte Marcus vermutet, dass sich homosexuelle Männer auch zu stark auf regelmäßige Aids-Tests verlassen. "Diese Tests schützen nicht vor Ansteckung", betonte er.
Bundesgesundheitsministerin Ulla Schmidt (SPD) bezeichnete die neuen HIV-Zahlen als "ernste Entwicklung". Jeder müsse wissen, dass Aids trotz der medizinischen Fortschritte eine unheilbare Krankheit sei. Aufklärung und Information sei die wirksamste Strategie gegen die Ausbreitung des HI-Virus.
Seit Beginn der Aids-Epidemie in den achtziger Jahren sind in Deutschland rund 24.000 Menschen an der Immunschwäche erkrankt. Jedes Jahr kommen laut RKI-Berechnungen rund 800 neu diagnostizierte Fälle hinzu. Zu 80 Prozent sind Männer betroffen.
The New York Times
Fashion & Style
Big Girls Don't Cry
By STEPHANIE ROSENBLOOM
Published: October 13, 2005
WHEN women first joined the executive ranks of corporate America a generation ago, they donned sober slacks and button-down shirts. They carried standard-issue briefcases and adopted their male colleagues' stoicism.
More than two decades later, women have stopped trying to behave like men, trading in drab briefcases for handbags and embracing men's wear only if it is tailored to their curves. Yet there is one taboo from the earlier, prefeminist workplace that endures: women are not allowed to cry at the office. It is a potentially career-marring mistake that continues to be seen as a sign of weakness or irrationality, no less by women themselves than by men.
For evidence consider a recent episode of NBC's "Apprentice: Martha Stewart," in which a young woman whose team had just lost a flower-selling contest told Ms. Stewart that she felt like crying. Her admission elicited no sympathy from her prospective employer, only blunt career advice.
"Cry and you are out of here," Ms. Stewart said. "Women in business don't cry, my dear."
Women in politics don't either, judging by Geena Davis's performance as the steely Mackenzie Allen on ABC's "Commander in Chief." Discussing the pilot episode, in which Allen navigates a political minefield to ascend to the office of president of the United States, Ms. Davis told a reporter from The Chicago Sun-Times, "I did not cry in my pilot - no!"
For reasons both biological and social, scientists and sociologists say, women are more inclined than men to feel the urge to cry when they are frustrated. Yet Martha Stewart is not the only woman executive who expects her underlings to remain dry-eyed. Many other workplace veterans also impose the rule and through seminars, books, Web sites and private conversations, recommend tricks for how to follow it.
"I hear women being called crybaby all the time, even by other women," said Lori Majewski, the managing editor of Teen People. The judgment can be unfair, she said, because sometimes women cry for good reason. Nevertheless, she said, "women need to be vigilant, to hold it in."
Ms. Majewski, 34, knows what it is like to cry at work because she has done so herself - once. She was in her early 20's and had a scare about a magazine cover photo shoot falling through. Her boss took her aside and told her she needed to remain composed in front of her colleagues.
She has since handed down the lesson to her own employees, suggesting that they leave the office and take a walk if they feel the need to cry. "Don't even go into the bathroom," she said. "If you go into the bathroom, someone's going to see you and the gossip gets around."
When a woman does cry at work, she should address her superior about it directly, Ms. Majewski said. "Go to your boss and say, 'I was quite overtaken with emotion, it's so not me, I hope you understand,' " she said. "Just don't blame it on your period."
Some women pinch their skin, bite their lips or breathe deeply to stem tears while at work. Advice on the Society for Women Engineers' Web site, swe.org, suggests anticipating and rehearsing difficult situations. An article about crying on Womensmedia.com, advises emotional detachment: "Compartmentalizing feelings is also a good skill to learn. Practice not acting on a feeling you have."
Crying at work is different from crying at a wedding, a sappy movie or at someone's hospital bed because it is typically triggered not by compassion or even sadness but by frustration or anger. And at work people are expected to react rationally to such feelings.
"When people show emotionalism in the workplace, they are not taken as seriously," said Mary Gatta, the director of work force policy and research at the Center for Women and Work at Rutgers University.
Men learned this lesson back in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when the Industrial Revolution structured the workplace and the workday, and required a disciplined work force, said Tom Lutz, the director of the M.F.A. writing program at the California Institute of the Arts and the author of "Crying: The Natural and Cultural History of Tears." Factory managers trained their workers to be calm and rational, the better to be productive. "You don't want emotions interfering with the smooth running of things," Mr. Lutz said.
Women for the most part did not receive this particular kind of on-the-job training. Nor did they usually learn, as boys did, that it was acceptable to express frustration in other ways.
"Men are allowed to be more direct," said Marianne LaFrance, a psychology professor at Yale University. "They can pound table tops and yell and throw something against walls and do various kinds of physical acting out. Women's mode of expression is supposed to be more passive, more childlike." She continued, "If women could act out like men, there would probably be less tears."
Temper tantrums are typically frowned upon at the office, too, but they are still considered more acceptable than crying, said William H. Frey II, the director of the Alzheimer's Research Center at Regions Hospital in St. Paul and the author of "Crying: The Mystery of Tears." Nature may also make women more prone to tears than men, he said, explaining that both boys and girls cry about the same amount until the age of 12.
But by the time women reach 18, they are crying four times as much as men, said Dr. Frey, who has conducted research on behavioral, personality and genetic aspects of crying and who has also studied the chemistry of tears.
Scientists do not know exactly why women tend to cry more easily, but Dr. Frey said several factors may be at work. One is the hormone prolactin, he said, which is present in mammary glands and induces lactation but is also found in the blood and in tear glands. Boys and girls have about equal levels of prolactin levels in their blood during childhood. But from ages of 12 to 18, the levels in girls gradually rise, and that may have something to do with why women cry more than men.
Tear glands in men and women also differ anatomically, and that, too, may lead women to cry more easily, Dr. Frey said.
Many women remember crying or wanting to cry at some point in their careers, especially when they were starting out. Jenny Oz LeRoy, the chief executive of LeRoy Ventures, which operates Tavern on the Green, recalled her first difficult days in the kitchen at the restaurant her father owned: "I was the only girl in the kitchen, and there are these guys being testosterone-driven egomaniacs. They were like, 'Get out, let the guys handle it.' " She ran out of the kitchen crying, but returned minutes later and pressed on. "I thought, 'I'm not going to let some guy in a jacket make me feel stupid,' " she said. "You're so watched as a woman for everything you do."
Ms. LeRoy has since learned control. "Nobody wants to see the boss fall apart," she said. "Or, on the other hand, everybody wants to see the boss fall apart."
While women have moved into managerial positions in droves, they account for less than 1 percent of the Fortune 500 chief executives. This fact - as well as persistent, if shrinking, gaps in pay and promotions between men and women - may make women all the more conscious of their own workplace behavior. "Women are still contending with being seen as doing the job," Dr. LaFrance said, "not as a woman doing the job."
A recent study by researchers at Pennsylvania State University found evidence that men's tears are viewed more positively than women's. "It seems that because men are less frequently noticed crying, they're given the benefit of the doubt," said Stephanie Shields, a professor of psychology and women's studies, who led the study.
"When a man cries, it leads people to think he's a sweet, sensitive, caring individual," Dr. LaFrance said, but when a woman cries, she is often seen as "emotionally labile."
Jarrod Moses, the president and chief executive of Alliance, an entertainment marketing firm that is part of Grey Global Group, said he looks down on crying at work because he dislikes extreme behavior of any kind. "I am a true believer in keeping the game face when you're in the office setting," he said. "You have to manage your mind. I think a lot of people lose respect for people who can't. Frankly, I do."
Dana Spain-Smith, the owner and chief operating officer of DLG Media Holdings, which owns Philadelphia Style and DC Style magazines, said: "I definitely have had times when I've had to step out of the office. There's a perception, not that I'm the woman, but that I'm the boss. It makes the employees nervous. There has to be certain type of 'we look up to her.' "
Executives like Susan Lyne of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia and Anne Sweeney, president of the Disney-ABC Television Group, were models for the president on "Commander in Chief," according to Rod Lurie, the executive producer of the series. And while his fictional president may be unlikely to break down in the Oval Office, would a real woman as president need to be as stoic?
"Unfortunately," Mr. Lurie said, "she would have to be more stoic than a man."
♪ "big boy"は米口語で、「（企業・実業界の）大物」のことを言う。
The Times October 15, 2005
Rising daughters face uphill task
By Richard Lloyd Parry
New women MPs will struggle to beat Japan’s male prejudice
WOMEN MPs, who were elected in record numbers in Japan last month, are waging a battle with the conservative male forces within the ruling party of Junichiro Koizumi, the Prime Minister, to speed up the reform of women’s rights.
Forty-three women were elected to the 480-seat chamber, exceeding the record of 39 set in 1946, and most are in Mr Koizumi’s Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), traditionally the most paternalistic and male-dominated of the political groups.
For the snap election Mr Koizumi recruited a number of prominent female “assassins” to run against rebel LDP politicians who had opposed him over the issue of post- office privatisation.
Women were placed high on the lists of LDP candidates for the seats allocated by proportional representation and all 26 women candidates running for the party made it into parliament. The scene is set for a struggle between the newly empowered female MPs and their conservative male colleagues. Under the slogans of “gender empowerment” on the one hand and “family values” on the other, the sides are waging a struggle that has profound implications for Japanese society and economic prosperity.
“This election . . . is a threshold of change for women in politics,” Kuniko Inoguchi, a former professor and one of the newly elected women, said. “We now have the highest number of female MPs ever. This is a national achievement and it is the achievement of Mr Koizumi, who made the strategic decision to promote women.” The Prime Minister has taken on the job of president of the Headquarters for the Promotion of Gender Equality. But even with this high-level leadership, the status of women remains dismal.
In the professions Japanese women lag behind their sisters in the rest of the developed world. Only one in eight Japanese lawyers is a woman, as is one in ten company managers, one in thirty ambassadors and one in seventy senior civil servants.
Within the political world, there is an increasingly vocal male opposition to gender reform. Yoshiro Mori, a former Prime Minister, has suggested that childless women should be deprived of their pensions. “Welfare is supposed to take care of and reward those women who have lots of children,” he said.
More alarming to campaigners for equality are the less outspoken remarks by Shinzo Abe, an up-and-coming figure within the LDP who is the favourite to succeed Mr Koizumi as Prime Minister.
“A (gender equality) concept which ignores the value of marriage and the family is linked to the destruction of culture,” he said recently.
［映画］「ビューティフル ボーイ」＝タイ 苦悩する女装格闘家 (読売 2005/10/14夕刊)
"Beautiful Boxer" 主演、アッサニー・スワン