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同性婚禁止提案を承認 米テキサス州の住民投票 (共同 2005/11/09)
Texas Voters Approve Ban on Gay Marriage
- By DAVID CRARY, AP National Writer
Wednesday, November 9, 2005
(11-09) 00:26 PST (AP) --
Voters in Texas and Maine rendered a split verdict Tuesday on gay rights, while California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger — his popularity plummeting — suffered a setback in his power struggle with public-employee unions and Democratic legislators.
Californians rejected three measures promoted by the hard-campaigning Schwarzenegger — to cap state spending, strip lawmakers of redistricting powers and make teachers work five years instead of two to pass probation.
The last of the governor's four proposals would require public-employee unions to get members' permission before their dues could be used for political purposes. Returns there were too close to call.
"No matter what the results are ... tomorrow the victories and the losses will be behind us," Schwarzenegger said. "No matter what ... we're going to continue to fight for California."
Texas voters overwhelmingly approved a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage, making their state the 19th to take that step. In Maine, however, voters rejected a conservative-backed proposal to repeal the state's new gay-rights law.
The contest in Texas was lopsided; near-complete returns showed the gay-marriage ban supported by about 76 percent of voters. Like every other state except Massachusetts, Texas didn't permit same-sex marriages previously, but the constitutional amendment was touted as an extra guard against future court rulings.
"Texans know that marriage is between a man and a woman, and children deserve both a mom and a dad. They don't need a Ph.D. or a degree in anything else to teach them that," said Kelly Shackelford, a leader Texans For Marriage, which favored the ban.
Gay-rights leaders were dismayed by the outcome, but vowed to continue a state-by-state battle for recognition of same-sex unions.
"The fight for fairness isn't over, and we won't give up," said Joe Solmonese, president of the Human Rights Campaign. "These amendments are part of a long-standing effort by the extreme right to eliminate any legal recognition for gay people and our families."
In a local Texas election, voters in White Settlement, named 160 years ago after white settlers moved into a mostly Indian area, emphatically rejected a proposal to change the town's name to West Settlement. Some civic leaders felt the traditional name should be changed to lure business investment; nearly 92 percent of voters disagreed.
In Maine, voters spurned a measure placed on the ballot by a church-backed conservative coalition that would have repealed a gay-rights law approved by lawmakers earlier this year. The lawmakers expanded the state's human rights act to outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation, a step already taken by the five other New England states.
In near-complete returns, about 55 percent of voters were opposing repeal of the new law, which is broadly worded to protect transsexuals and transvestites as well as gays and lesbians.
"This is such a much-needed victory for our national community, because we've experienced so many losses," said Matt Foreman, executive director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. "We've got to press forward on nondiscrimination protection, and not let marriage continue to swamp the movement."
California voters, in addition to voting on Schwarzenegger's measures, also were deciding whether to require doctors to give a parent or guardian written notice before performing an abortion on a minor. More than 30 states have laws requiring parental notice or consent; the contest was neck-and-neck.
In Washington state, voters approved a measure expanding the state's ban on indoor smoking to include bars, restaurants and non-tribal casinos.
New Jersey voters approved a proposal to have an elected lieutenant governor who would take over if a sitting governor leaves office early. The measure was a response to the gay sex scandal that drove former Gov. James McGreevey from office and installed Senate President Richard Codey as acting governor even as he retained his Senate duties. New Jersey has been one of eight states with no lieutenant governor.
In Republican-governed Ohio, where the 2004 presidential election was marked by complaints of unfair election practices, four election-overhaul measures backed by Democratic-leaning groups were on the ballot, but all were defeated. One of the failed items would have taken redistricting powers away from legislators.
Texas voters add gay marriage ban to constitution
Tue Nov 8, 2005 09:45 PM ET
HOUSTON (Reuters) - Texans voted overwhelmingly to add a prohibition of same-sex marriage to their constitution on Tuesday, becoming the 19th U.S. state to do so.
With about 550,000 votes counted, Proposition 2 was heading for ratification with 75.5 percent in favor.
The outcome was expected even by opponents and continued a backlash to the movement for same-sex marriage that seemed to gain momentum when a Massachusetts court legalized gay unions in 2004.
Since then, same-sex marriage has suffered a string of losses at the polls as citizens elsewhere have rejected the notion.
Texas was the only state with such a measure on the ballot. The home state of President George W. Bush already had a law barring gay marriage but proponents of the measure, mostly Republicans, sought a constitutional amendment to block a possible court challenge similar to the one in Massachusetts.
The opposition, largely Democratic, argued the amendment was unnecessary and worded so broadly that it could infringe on existing rights of homosexuals, like their ability to visit a gravely ill partner in the hospital.
Several other states have laws, but not constitutional language, defining marriage as being between a man and a woman.
Bush and some Republicans have sought an amendment to the U.S. Constitution barring same-sex marriage, but the effort has yet to gain traction.
Texas Approves Gay Marriage Ban, Maine Staves Off Anti-Gay Threat
by Paul Johnson 365Gay.com Washington Bureau Chief
Posted: November 9, 2005 12:01 am ET
(Washington) Texas overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage Tuesday while Maine rejected a bid to repeal the state's LGBT civil rights protections.
New Yorkers reelected Mayor Michael Bloomberg despite the lack of an endorsement from the state's largest LGBT rights group, and in California gay activists campaigned up until the last moment against Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger's government reform measures as payback for vetoing a gay marriage bill.
Three out of four Texas voters supported the amendment. It not only bars same-sex couples from marrying but also prevents the state from recognizing civil unions. Opponents of the measure say it may also negate common-law marriages for opposite-sex couples.
An organization representing opposite-sex unmarried couples joined with LGBT rights groups to fight the amendment, running a telephone ad campaign that infuriated amendment supporters. (story)
Last weekend the Ku Klux Klan staged a small but well publicized anti-gay rally on a public square at Austin City Hall. LGBT rights groups mounted a counter protest, in the form of a vigil, about a block away. (story)
Texas already had a law banning same-sex marriage, but supporters of the amendment say that by that putting it in the state constitution judges would be prevented from overturning the law.
There are an estimated 43,000 same-sex couples in Texas.
Passage of the amendment made Texas the 18th state to constitutionally ban same-sex marriage.
The Human Rights Campaign in statement Tuesday night blamed cynical politics for the passage of the amendment.
"These amendments are part of a long-standing effort by the extreme right to eliminate any legal recognition for gay people and our families," said Human Rights Campaign President Joe Solmonese.
"This fight for fairness isn't over and we won't give up," Solmonese said.
"All that today's results show is that it is profoundly wrong and profoundly un-American to put the rights of a small minority of Americans up for a popular vote," said the National and Lesbian Task Force executive director Matt Foreman.
"This is not democracy; this is tyranny of the majority. No one would tolerate this being done to any other minority, but it's still open season on gay people."
Supporters of the amendment quickly called on Congress to pass the federal marriage amendment.
"Texans know that marriage is between a man and a woman, and children deserve both a mom and a dad. They don't need a PhD or a degree in anything else to teach them that," said Kelly Shackelford, a leader Texans For Marriage, which favored the gay marriage ban.
A vote on the federal measure is expected tomorrow in the Senate Judiciary sub-committee. (story)
Among the most vocal supporters of the Texas amendment was Gov. Rick Perry. In June Perry signed the legislation sending the amendment to voters. Although his signature was not needed Perry said that the symbolism was important. (story)
Following the signing the governor was asked at a press conference how he would tell Texas gay and lesbian war veterans that they cannot come home from the war in Iraq and get married.
"Texans made a decision about marriage and if there's a state that has more lenient views than Texas, then maybe that's a better place for them to live," Perry replied.
The remark prompted a demonstration at the capitol on July 1 by gay former servicemembers. (story)
Meanwhile, in Maine, a ballot measure to overturn the state's LGBT civil rights protections was rejected by voters.
"Today's win proves that dogged, grassroots organizing can overcome the lies and smears of anti-gay zealots and the profound unfairness of having minority rights put up for a popular vote," said Matt Foreman, executive director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.
"After the marriage amendment losses we've experienced over the last 12 months, this is a much-needed victory for our national movement — it proves we can win statewide contests. Every lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender American is deeply indebted to the staff and volunteers of Maine Won't Discriminate, and to the people of Maine for embracing fairness and rejecting bigotry."
The law protects members of the LGBT community from discrimination in housing, employment and credit. It was signed by Governor John Baldacci in March (story).
The Christian Civic League of Maine immediately began a repeal effort, gathering enough signatures to force the issue onto next month's ballot.
The league has forced referenda on similar bills three times in the past decade and gays have seen the protections erased at the polls each time until Tuesday.
In New York, Mayor Michael Bloomberg coasted to an easy victory over Democrat Gifford Miller despite being denied the endorsement of the state's largest LGBT civil rights organization.
Empire State Pride Agenda threw its support behind Miller, the City Council Speaker.
Pride Agenda cited Bloomberg's appeal of a New York City court ruling that ordered the city to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples as the prime reason it supported his opponent.
Meanwhile in California where no anti-gay measure is on the ballot this year gay activists battled Gov Arnold Schwarzenegger's so-called government reform referenda as a payback for his vetoing gay marriage legislation earlier this year.
The state's largest LGBT civil rights group, Equality California, campaigned with nurses, teachers and other groups to fight the series of ballot measures to give the governor greater authority to make budget cuts; make teachers work five years instead of two to pass probation; strip lawmakers of their power to carry out redistricting, and require public employee unions to get members‘ permission before dues could be used for political purposes.
The support EQCA gave unions and other groups fighting the ballot measures is likely to result in an alliance of the same groups if two proposed anti-gay marriage propositions make it to the ballot in 2006.
Meanwhile: Homolexicology: Is a lesbian a gay?
By William Safire The New York Times
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 2005
WASHINGTON In an article about a referendum coming to a vote in Maine this week, The Associated Press reports that opponents of broadened civil rights protections for homosexual men and women claim that such legislation, already signed into law by the governor, would "grant a new status to gay men and lesbians that could open the door to same-sex marriage."
Meanwhile, Marc Lacey of The New York Times reports from Nairobi, Kenya, that in a referendum revamping that nation's constitution, "there has been disagreement on whether the language opposing discrimination would protect gay men and lesbians, who are scorned here."
Apparently, in writing about people who are homosexual, the word gay no longer covers both men and women. It seems to me that the usage is now the specifically inclusive gay men and lesbians whether the distinction is useful or not.
Why is gay no longer encompassing enough? "Historically, gay represented both homosexual men and women and technically still does," says Chris Crain, editor of the gay weeklies The Washington Blade and The New York Blade, "but a number of gay women felt that gay was too male-associated and pressed to have lesbians separately identified so they weren't lost in the gay-male image." That led to such names as the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. (The Washington Blade began in 1969 as The Gay Blade, a play on an old expression about a gallant.)
Diane Anderson-Minshall, executive editor of Curve, a lesbian magazine in San Francisco, agrees that the one-word adjective was expanded to set homosexual women apart: "When, in the queer world, you say 'the gay community,' the majority of the time that conjures up San Francisco's largely male Castro District, or West Hollywood or 'Queer Eye for the Straight Guy,' so interjecting the word lesbian into the mix is a necessary reminder that we - gay women - are not simply a subset of that larger male world but rather our own distinct community of individuals." The editor freely uses "queer," formerly a slur, to include not only lesbians but "bisexual women and lesbian-identified transgender women." This leads to the initialese LGBT, standing for "Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender," as well as its gay-first GLBT.
The reader will note my careful use of the word homosexual as an adjective modifying a noun like man rather than as a noun itself.
That's for two reasons: first, because the prefix homo is from the Greek homos, "the same," in this case denoting a "same sex" relationship, not to be confused with the Latin homo, "man," as in homo sapiens, the current species of human being.
Another reason for the wincing at homosexual, especially as a noun, is the emphasis that the word places on sexuality, while gay and lesbian also may range across cultural and social attitudes (but watch out for that no-no lifestyle). An American Psychological Association report notes that homosexual "has been associated in the past with deviance, mental illness and criminal behavior," which has led to a "negative stereotype." As that connotation wears off, I expect that the noun - a Standard English synonym for the now widely used "same-sex" - will make a comeback.
We know where lesbian (no longer capitalized) comes from: the Greek island Lesbos, "after the alleged practice of Sappho" as the OED carefully puts it, home of the poet (formerly poetess) who made the place famous. The word gay, which originally meant "lighthearted" as in "her heart was young and gay," was British slang for "a loose woman" in 1825, turning into "a homosexual boy" in 1935 and gaining that meaning in U.S. slang in the 1950s.
Japan to back gender equality in royal succession
Tue Nov 8, 2005 11:23 AM IST
By Linda Sieg
TOKYO (Reuters) - Japan is leaning towards giving women the same right to inherit the imperial throne as men, media reports said on Tuesday, breaking a male-only tradition in order to ensure its ancient monarchy does not die out.
The change would resolve a looming succession crisis but upset ultra-conservatives intent on preserving an imperial male line they believe stretches back more than 2,000 years.
Japan's succession debate parallels one in Spain, where the birth of a baby girl to the future queen has lent urgency to discussions on changing the constitution to allow a first-born girl to ascend the throne even if a royal son is born later.
Only male descendants of Japan's emperor can inherit the Chrysanthemum Throne at present, but no royal boys have been born in 40 years and Emperor Akihito's three grandchildren are girls.
Advisory panel chief Hiroyuki Yoshikawa said late last month the experts would recommend that females and their descendants be allowed to succeed to the throne.
But he left unclear whether a younger male would be given precedence over his older sisters, as in Britain and Spain currently.
Media said on Tuesday the panel was likely to recommend having the first-born inherit regardless of who was born later.
"That would be in line with gender equality and allows the succession to be decided at an early stage," said Keio University professor Hidehiko Kasahara, adding that this was also the trend in European royal houses.
"It is true that there will be some who oppose this, but among the public generally, there is support for a new mode of succession so I do not think there will be a big problem," said Kasahara, an expert on the imperial family.
TOUCHY TOPIC, PUBLIC SUPPORT
The government is expected to enact legal revisions to the 1947 Imperial Household Law in the next session of parliament.
That would clear the way for 3-year-old Princess Aiko -- the only daughter of Crown Prince Naruhito -- to become Japan's first reigning empress since the 18th century.
In a sign of the subject's sensitivity, however, a cousin of Emperor Akihito, 71, last week questioned the growing calls to let a woman ascend the throne.
"The reason why the imperial family line is so precious ... is due to the very fact that it's been, without exception, a male line," wrote Prince Tomihito, 59, who is the eldest cousin of Akihito and fifth in line for the throne.
"Is it all right to change so easily the unique tradition and history of our country?" the prince added in an essay circulated among members of a welfare foundation which he heads.
Echoing proposals by ultra-conservative scholars, Tomihito suggested Japan consider reviving the princely houses abolished after World War Two and finding a male heir among their ranks, or even bringing back the practice of imperial concubines.
Japan has had eight reigning empresses, but traditionalists stress that none of those passed on the throne to her own child.
While most lawmakers and the vast majority of the public favour allowing a female to ascend the throne, a survey by the Nihon Keizai newspaper published last week showed citizens were divided over whether females should only reign if there were no male heirs.
Hopes for a male heir dimmed three years ago when Crown Princess Masako, who turns 42 next month, gave birth to Aiko after nearly eight years of marriage.
〔連載〕続 アメリカ医療の光と影 第 71回
李 啓充 医師／作家（在ボストン）
註2：「産児調節（birth control）」という言葉が世界で最初に使われたのは，1914年6月号の『Woman Rebel』誌上のことであった。
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