TV & Radio
Web posted at: 21:07 JST
ニューヨーク映画批評家協会はこのほか、米カントリー歌手、ジョニー・キャッシュの伝記映画「ウォーク・ザ・ライン／君につづく道」に主演したリース・ウィザースプーンに主演女優賞を贈ったほか、デービッド・クローネンバーグ監督の「A History of Violence」から、ウィリアム・ハートとマリア・ベロが、それぞれ助演男優賞、助演女優賞を受賞。
2005年 12月 13日 火曜日 16:22 JST
［ニューヨーク １２日 ロイター］ ニューヨーク映画批評家協会賞が１２日発表され、アン・リー監督の「Brokeback Mountain」が作品賞、監督賞、主演男優賞（ヒース・レジャー）を受賞した。
2005年 12月 12日 月曜日 14:34 JST
［ロサンゼルス １１日 ロイター］ 米映画批評家選出賞のノミネート作品が１１日発表され、「Brokeback Mountain」と「Crash」の優勢が明らかになった。
批評家選出賞の最優秀作品賞にノミネートされているのは上記５作品のほか、スリラー映画の「The Constant Gardener」、ジョージ・グルーニー監督の「グッドナイト＆グッドラック」、スティーブン・スピルバーグ監督の「ミュンヘン」、日本芸者の物語「ＳＡＹＵＲＩ（邦題）」、大作「キング・コング」の合計１０作品がノミネートされている。
上記のノミネート作品以外にも、デビッド・クローネンバーグ監督の「A History of Violence」や石油をめぐる政治ドラマ「シリアナ」、テレンス・マリック監督の「The New World」、ウディ・アレン監督の「Match Point」、スティーヴン・フリアーズ監督の「Mrs. Henderson Presents」など多数の有力作品がアカデミー賞候補として話題に上っている。
Human Rights Campaign (HRC)
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR)
Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG)
Same-sex, wills and pensions
The Japan Times: Dec. 13, 2005
Reader W. offers some very interesting information on the topic of same-sex marriage in Japan.
Same-sex marriage, she writes, is not recognized in Japan, but many gay couples get around these issues by "adopting" each other. Under Japanese law, anyone can be adopted by anyone, as long as they are one day older and not already in son/daughter relationship with them.
They are listed as an adopted son or daughter of the older person's "koseki tohon," and are legally recognized as family. They in fact automatically take the last name of the person they are adopted by.
While the law was originally intended (and still is used) to provide sons to households with only daughters to carry on the family name, same sex couples have quietly been using it for years as a way of cementing their relationships. It's not a very well known fact, but definitely interesting.
In some cases, a foreign adult can legally be adopted under Japanese law by a Japanese adult. This might be one way to secure a visa for the same-sex couple. In fact, the Japanese national softball team coach adopted a Chinese softball player to get her on the team.
Reader Kai is wondering if his ward office can make a refund from the National Pension system (ie. the Lump Sum Withdrawal Payment) to an overseas bank account as he does not have a local account in Japan.
If foreigners who have contributed to the pension system for 6 months or longer leave Japan permanently before they have paid into the system for 25 years, they are entitled to a partial refund, known as a Lump-sum Withdrawal Payment.
The amount returned is based on the length of time spent paying into the system, and must be applied for within two years of leaving Japan.
Once applied for, the pension refund usually arrives within a couple of months, and is deposited into a designated bank account. Since the payment is designed for people who have theoretically left Japan for good, provision is made for the deposit of the cash in an overseas account.
You can leave Japan, claim the money and then return to work here, though if you do this, the amount of time you're registered as having paid into the pension system returns to zero, and you are not allowed to apply for another refund when you leave the country a second time.
An application form for the Lump Sum Withdrawal Payment can be picked up at your nearest Social Insurance Office or ward office.
These documents, plus a completed application form should be mailed to the Social Insurance Agency in Tokyo. The address is: 5-24, Takaido-Nishi 3-chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 168-8505 The Social Insurance Agency can be reached at (03) 3334-3131.
On the subject of wills in Japan (see Lifelines; Dec. 6), Hide writes that not only Japanese but also non-Japanese residing in Japan can make wills and get them notarized by a city hall with two witnesses as requested.
Each prefecture has "gyoseishoshikai" or an association of lawyers that is authorized by the respective governors. They have English-speaking solicitors to help foreign residents.
Jack at the Alishan Organic Center writes that the center in Saitama, which now includes a cafe and an event area, has a range of activities planned for 2006 -- including cooking classes with domestic and overseas chefs, candle making, seminars on home farming and a movie night.
There is also a textile event planned for May.
If any readers are interested in getting involved, check out www.alishan-organic-center.com for more information and contact details.
Send your queries, questions, problems and posers to firstname.lastname@example.org
Japan through Hollywood’s distorting lens
Published: December 12 2005 22:07 | Last updated: December 12 2005 22:07
One of the biggest films to come out over the holiday period will be the film version of Arthur Golden’s novel Memoirs of a Geisha. Like the book, which spent two years on the New York Times bestseller list, the film – produced by Steven Spielberg – is set to be a huge success. The first big Hollywood movie to have an entirely Asian cast in the lead roles, it has all the ingredients of a blockbuster: big-name stars, an award-winning production crew and a wonderful Cinderella story. It is a beautiful-looking film and there is already talk of Oscars. But unfortunately the film has another classic Hollywood touch: a disturbing disregard for cultural accuracy.
What made the novel so successful was its apparent realism. People believed they were reading an actual memoir. The story of a young girl named Chiyo who is sold to a geisha house by her impoverished parents, Memoirs charts her troubled metamorphosis into the geisha Sayuri. It is so convincingly told that even today some readers believe Sayuri existed.
Yet although the novel is a believ-able read, it was still criticised by real geisha for what they saw as grave errors. Mineko Iwasaki, a geisha Golden interviewed while writing the book, tried to sue the author for what she saw as a betrayal of her trust – she eventually settled out of court. But if the book’s inaccuracies upset geisha, then the film version, directed by Chicago director Rob Marshall, will only make things worse.
The first point of contention is Marshall’s decision to cast Chinese actresses in the lead roles. In Japan geisha are seen as guardians of traditional Japanese arts and an integral symbol of Japanese culture. While geisha are a mystery to many modern Japanese, there is indignation that non-Japanese should be chosen to portray them. The decision is also looked upon unfavourably by many Chinese. If geisha were Israeli, it would be like casting a Palestinian to play the part: you could do it, but you would be certain to cause upset on both sides.
Marshall has defended his decision by claiming that he could not find Japanese actresses good enough to claim the title roles as their own. But there are many fine actresses in Japan. Indeed, there are some in Memoirs – Youki Kudoh (as Pumpkin) and Kaori Momoi (as Mother), for example. The trouble is that, unlike Zhang Ziyi (who plays the part of Sayuri and is now being billed as Ziyi Zhang), Michelle Yeoh (as Mameha) and Gong Li (as Hastumomo), they are not big bankable names that will guarantee audiences for this $85m (£48m) film.
It might have been a risk to cast unknown Japanese actors, but the film could then have been made in Japanese and have achieved a higher level of authenticity. The Last Samurai, with its extensive use of Japanese, shows the benefits of using languages appropriate to the setting. And indeed the first five minutes of Memoirs are the most convincing because they are in Japanese. But then the English narration begins and we are left with actors forced to speak English in a way reminiscent of the B-movies of a less politically correct time, with broken sentences and awkward pronunciation.
Questions of realism aside, the use of Chinese actresses also has unfortunate political implications. Relations between China and Japan are not especially warm, and Memoirs is set at a time when Japan was rampaging across east Asia. The leading male characters of the Chairman (played by Ken Watanabe) and Nobu (Kôji Yakusho) were both active during the second world war. Placing Chinese women in romantic roles opposite Japanese men has angered many in China, with disgruntled rumblings appearing on various websites. The fact that “geisha” is loosely translated in Chinese as “prostitute” raises memories of the Imperial Japanese Army’s habit of procuring “comfort women” from occupied countries and forcing them to act as prostitutes for Japanese soldiers. The Korean actress Kim Yoon-Jin, who currently appears in the TV series Lost, is said to have turned down a role in the film as “a matter of pride” because she did not want her first Hollywood film role to be a Japanese geisha. The Chinese actresses who did not make the same decision have been labelled traitors in some quarters.
Perhaps the film’s worst fault is the way it plays to western fantasies about the mysterious, exotic east – what the late scholar Edward Said labelled the Orientalist tendency in western thought.
Ever since Japan opened its doors to the outside world in 1854, the geisha has been seen in the west as a symbol of eastern eroticism. Foreign sailors who visited the pleasure quarters in the port cities of Yokohama and Nagasaki were unable to see the subtle distinctions between geisha, who are essentially entertainers, and tayu, who were licensed prostitutes. Both wore kimonos and had painted white faces and elaborate hairstyles, but the tayu tied their obi (the belts used with kimono) with bows at the front – for easy access – while the geisha’s kimono was tied at the back. Westerners overlooked this and simply labelled them all “geisha girls”.
Tales such as Pierre Loti’s Madame Chrysanthemum and the opera it inspired, Puccini’s Madama Butterfly, soon became popular in the west. Geisha became associated in the western mind with exotic sex, beauty and mystery. These prejudices persist today and even though the film version of Memoirs of a Geisha repeatedly tries to send the message that geisha are not prostitutes, it contradicts itself by overemphasising the auctioning off of Sayuri’s virginity. By not portraying the geisha accurately, the film only adds to the Orientalist view of Asian women as exotic fantasy creatures.
Early on in the production of the film it was decided that the traditional white-face make-up of the geisha would be offputting for American audiences. Instead we are presented with a toned-down, westernised geisha – Sayuri even has blue eyes. Geisha hairstyles are lost too, and replaced with long loose hair and styles that are more reminiscent of those seen in Chinese films also starring Zhang, Li and Yeoh.
In one of the central scenes of the film, a dance starring Zhang, any pretensions to cultural accuracy go right out of the window. It was obviously decided that geisha dances – which in reality are slow, graceful affairs – were not visually interesting enough for audiences used to seeing Zhang flying among the bamboo. So what we end up with is a mish-mash of imagery, as the filmmakers opt to mix theatrical kabuki-style dancing with Hollywood razzamatazz. Wearing a wig of long, flowing black hair reminiscent of women in Chinese ghost stories, Zhang dances dramatically while balancing on eight-inch platform shoes and holding an umbrella in a blizzard of fake snow. A spotlight shines down and koto drummers dictate the frenetic beat – the effect is much closer to Chicago than anything in the geisha world. To make matters worse, the costume designer has dressed Zhang in shoes worn by a tayu for her coming-out ceremony, which will surely upset many geisha aficionados.
Marshall has said that he intended Memoirs as a fable. But this does not excuse the inaccuracies in the film. Geisha are real and the story is set in the real world during a particularly troublesome period of history. It is no fairy-tale.
In the end, all the cultures involved with this film come off badly. A Japanese cultural symbol has been thoroughly misrepresented – so much so that the film is simply titled Sayuri in Japan, shrewdly omitting the word “geisha”. Chinese actresses are taking a beating from their own countrymen, accused of treachery. And the American production is grist to the mill of those who accuse the US of insensitivity to any culture but its own.
Until Hollywood starts to view Asia as a place of very diverse cultures and people, and not simply as a place of exotic fantasy, Asian actors, particularly women, will suffer under the burden of stereotyping. They will find it hard if not impossible to move beyond roles in Orientalist films such as this.
Of course, the filmmakers see things differently. Speaking to journalists in Tokyo before the film’s premiere, Marshall said: “I think there is a misconception about what a geisha is across the world, certainly in the western world. One of the joys of this movie was to clarify what a geisha is.”
But instead of clarity, we are left with a kind of McGeisha tweaked for western tastes. In Memoirs Marshall has assembled an image of oriental women that satisfies the mass market; ultimately, this kind of bland cinematic globalisation can only create more misconceptions.