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2006年02月28日11時02分 - 朝日
Gains push women to 16.3 pct of world's lawmakers
Mon Feb 27, 2006 6:40 PM ET
UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - Women made up 16.3 percent of the membership of parliaments worldwide at the end of 2005, edging up from 15.7 percent a year earlier, the Inter-Parliamentary Union reported on Monday.
The latest statistics confirmed that women have made steady progress in elections since a landmark world conference on women in Beijing in 1995, when females made up just 11.3 percent of the world's lawmakers, the group said in its annual survey.
Women on average comprised 20 percent of the deputies elected in the 39 countries which held parliamentary elections last year, IPU officials told reporters at U.N. headquarters.
In nine countries, more than 30 percent of those elected or returned to office in 2005 were women, with Norway topping the list at 37.9 percent, the group said.
Women fared the best in Nordic countries and the worst in Arab states, the group found in its latest annual roundup.
The United States, which had no elections last year, ranked 69, with 66 women in the U.S. House of Representatives (or 15.2 percent) and fourteen female senators, or 14 percent.
The proportion of women legislators fell in eight countries last year, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Denmark, Dominica, Egypt, Germany, Kyrgyzstan and St. Vincent and Grenadines, the group said.
In two countries -- Kyrgyzstan and Micronesia -- elections were held in 2005 but no women won seats. In Saudi Arabia, whose parliament was appointed, no women were named because women there do not have the right to vote or run for election, the group said.
That brought to nine the total number of countries without a single female lawmaker as of the end of last year, the survey found: Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and the United Arab Emirates as well as Kyrgyzstan, Micronesia and Saudi Arabia.
No.220, Geneva/New York, 27 Februay 2006
ONE OUT OF FIVE PARLIAMENTARIANS ELECTED IN 2005 IS A WOMAN
One fifth of parliamentarians elected in 2005 were women, according to the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), which today is presenting its latest statistics on elections in single or lower chambers of parliament in the 39 countries that held parliamentary elections last year. In total, 20 per cent of legislators elected in single or lower chambers in 2005 were women. The President of the organization of the world's parliaments, Mr. Pier Ferdinando Casini, who is also the Speaker of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, has emphasized that last year was marked by continued progress and new records for women's participation in the political field.
The statistics of the IPU also reveal that by the end of 2005, an average of 16.3 per cent of members in the upper and lower houses of parliament were women, up from 15.7 per cent in December 2004. This trend confirms the sustained progress made since 1995, when the proportion of women in parliament stood at 11.3 per cent.
More parliaments reach the 30 per cent threshold
Increases in the ratio of women parliamentarians were registered in 28 of the 39 parliaments (72%). Significantly, in nine countries, more than 30 per cent of those elected or returned to parliament were women. Norway topped the ranks in 2005; some 37.9 per cent of those elected were women, placing it in third position behind Rwanda and Sweden in the global ranking (see table and analysis, attached).
Both Denmark and Germany registered slight decreases in the proportion of women elected to parliament in comparison with the previous elections. In Denmark and Norway, women have held more than 30 per cent of parliamentary seats since the mid-1980s. This raises concerns as to whether these countries have reached a "ceiling" in terms of women's participation, and if so, how it might be overcome.
Andorra, Burundi, New Zealand and the United Republic of Tanzania are new to the list of countries where 30 per cent or more of legislators are women. New Zealand elected the highest number of women ever to its parliament. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the proportion of women elected to the legislature in 2005 reached an impressive 30.4 per cent. This result is noteworthy, as it the highest percentage of women ever achieved under a majority electoral system.
Significant increases and setbacks
The largest gains this year were seen in several Latin American countries and particularly Honduras - where the participation rose to 23 per cent. These gains are consistent with general trends in Latin American legislatures. Quotas have been implemented in Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras and Venezuela to promote the candidacies of women.
In Mauritius, the number of women in the parliament tripled from four to 12, which translates into an impressive gain (to 17,1 per cent of the membership). This followed in the wake of a concerted awareness-raising campaign by members of civil society and political parties to increase and strengthen the participation of women, advocating among other things the introduction of quotas.
A decrease in the number of women was observed in eight countries. In Egypt, women continued to face challenges in the electoral arena, with only 2 per cent of representatives elected in 2005 being women, a marginal decrease compared with the previous elections. In Bulgaria, Dominica and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the percentage of women in parliament dropped. The greatest setback happened in Kyrgyzstan, where the proportion of women in parliament dropped to zero. This can be explained in part by the change in the country's institutional structure. Kyrgyzstan moved from a bicameral parliament to a unicameral parliament. With incumbent parliamentarians vying for fewer parliamentary seats, women faced an even bigger challenge.
The number of parliaments with no women increased during 2005. In the parliamentary renewals in Micronesia, Saudi Arabia and Tonga, no women gained seats in parliament, although one woman won a by-election in Tonga in May 2005. A total of nine countries, mainly Pacific Island States and Arab States in the Gulf region, had no women in their national parliaments as of December 2005. The lack of women in parliament in a large number of Pacific Island States may be explained by the absence of support networks and financial assistance for aspiring women candidates and by a traditional culture which does not encourage their political participation.
Positive results for States emerging from conflict
In 2005 elections were held to restore parliaments in four countries emerging from conflict: Afghanistan, Burundi, Iraq and Liberia. In all of these countries the percentage of women parliamentarians increased. In Afghanistan, Burundi and Iraq, constitutional drafting processes led to the introduction of electoral quotas and other mechanisms aimed at ensuring a certain level of women's participation in parliament and in governmental structures. In Afghanistan 27 per cent of legislators are women. In Burundi, the proportion of women in parliament jumped from 18.4 per cent to 30.5 per cent. In Iraq, women comprised more than 30 per cent of representatives after the January 2005 elections, but this figure dropped to 25 per cent after the December 2005 election. In Liberia guidelines were developed for political party candidacies in elections; they specified a 30 per cent quota for women on party lists. However, the political parties did not follow them as there were no sanctions for non-compliance. As a result, only 12.5 per cent of the candidates elected were women.
All four examples highlight the importance given to including women in post-conflict institution building. Despite the vast differences between the countries, they share certain commonalities ? the intersection between domestic women's movements and the international community in supporting the election of women to parliament. These results confirm as well the trend whereby women vying for parliamentary seats in States emerging from conflict tend to fare better than they had prior to the conflict.
The question of quotas
Of the 39 counties that held elections in 2005 for lower or single houses of parliament, 15 implemented special measures, such as voluntary quotas (adopted by one or more political parties in New Zealand, Norway, Poland and Portugal), legislated political party quotas (Argentina, Bolivia, Burundi, Honduras, Liberia and Venezuela), and reserved seats or mandates (Afghanistan and the United Republic of Tanzania). The average ratio of women parliamentarians in countries that used quotas in elections during 2005 was nearly that of those without such special measures: 26.9 per cent as opposed to 13.6 per cent.
In the United Kingdom, before the elections, all political parties hotly debated the use of "all women shortlists". This is a practice whereby a number of local constituency parties must select their candidates from a list of female aspirant candidates. Only the Labour Party endorsed this practice, which was in large part responsible for the highest number of women ever being elected in the United Kingdom - 128, surpassing the previous high of 120 in 1997.
Quotas are not the only explanation of women's progress in the political field. They provide for a quantitative leap, but to attain the goal of effective gender equality in politics, quotas need to be accompanied by a series of other measures, which range from awareness-raising to the training of women and the development of gender-sensitive environments.
In addition to that, other elements which contribute to women's growing presence in parliament need to be factored in, including socio-economic development, political will, cultural evolution, and international assistance and support.
2005: An important step towards universal suffrage for women
The long struggle for full political rights for women in Kuwait finally met with success when on 16 May 2005 the all-male Kuwaiti parliament granted women the right to vote and stand for election. It is estimated that this will result in a majority female electorate for future polls - 195,000 of the estimated 339,000 voters registered during 2005 were women. Women will be able to participate in the parliamentary elections in 2007 and the local elections in 2009. This victory is indicative of an embryonic but largely positive trend regarding women's political participation in the Arab region. The struggle for the granting of political rights to women continues in Saudi Arabia, where an election law published in August 2005 did not explicitly ban women from voting in the 2005 municipal elections. In the end, though, women were excluded, officially because of "time constraints" and logistical considerations (such as the fact that only a fraction of Saudi women possess photo identity cards).
Women in top positions of power
The number of women presiding officers of parliament reached a high in January 2006. Women currently preside over 28 of the 262 parliamentary chambers (10.7%). Despite this relatively low figure, this reflects some progress. Only 7.2 per cent of presiding officers were women in January 2005. A third of the parliaments headed by women are found in the countries of the Caribbean, where women have presided over some parliaments for the past six years. Europe, too, fares well, with 10 women presiding officers. In 2005, women presided over parliamentary chambers for the first time in Albania, Burundi, New Zealand and Zimbabwe. New Zealand is an interesting example, as nearly all the top positions are currently held by women, including that of Prime Minister, Governor-General and presiding officer of parliament.
A quick look at the number of women heads of State or women holding the highest positions of government at the end of 2005 reveals a positive trend. In New Zealand, Helen Clarke assumed her third term as Prime Minister after forming a new Government in October 2005. In Europe, a record number of women held the top political offices, for example in Estonia, Finland, Ukraine, and Germany, where Angela Merkel became the country's first female Chancellor in November. The first elected female African head of State - Liberia's Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf - won a runoff election in November 2005. All told, 10 countries had women heads of State or Government in 2005. The year 2006 also begins on a positive note, with the election of Michelle Bachelet as the first woman president of Chile and the re election of Tarja Halonen as the President of Finland.
Meetings in New York on parliaments and gender equality
In order to strengthen the participation of women in politics, the IPU, pioneer in the field of promotion of partnership between women and men in politics, will hold two events at United Nations Headquarters in New York. On Monday, 27 February 2006, at 3 p.m. women Speakers of parliament will gather to discuss the situation of women in politics. Another meeting will take place on Wednesday, 1 March, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the Economic and Social Council (ECOSO) Hall; it will take stock of the contribution of parliaments in promoting gender equality.
Established in 1889 and with its Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the IPU, the oldest multilateral political organisation, currently brings together 143 affiliated parliaments and seven associated regional assemblies. The world organisation of parliaments has an Office in New York, which acts as its Permanent Observer at the United Nations.
Contact for additional information or interviews:
In Geneva: Mrs. Luisa Ballin, IPU Information Officer
5, ch. du Pommier, CH - 1218 Le Grand-Saconnex / Geneva
Phone: +41 22 919 41 16
Fax: +41 22 919 41 60
E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
In New York : Mrs. Kareen Jabre, Programme Manager, IPU Programme for the Promotion of Partnership between Men and Women.
Mobile Phone: +41 79 419 41 30
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Mr. Alessandro Motter IPU Liaison Officer
Phone: +1 212 557 58 80
Communiqué de presse
No.220, Genève/New York, 27 février 2006
UN PARLEMENTAIRE SUR CINQ ELUS EN 2005 EST UNE FEMME
Women in Parliaments: World Classification
THE ZEIT GIST
Japan's lesbian community in dual struggle for rights, acceptance
By THOMASINA LARKIN
The Japan Times: Feb. 28, 2006
Misrepresented, misunderstood and mysterious, a group of women fight a dual struggle, compelled to speak up for their rights, yet fearing the consequences of a life made visible in an oppressive world.
The mysteries surrounding this group have too often become false myths that stereotype the lives of lesbians. Very common is the belief that women become lesbians because of some traumatic experience they've had with a man.
"That's no more valid than asking a straight person if they had a bad experience with someone from the same gender and then become heterosexual," says Kim Oswalt, a Tokyo-based psychotherapist.
"Straight people know they are straight at a young age -- maybe even before having a sexual experience. The same could be said for lesbian and gays -- they may know their orientation at an early age.
"Internalized homophobia is when gays feel like they have to look and act straight to be invisible because there is a culture of repression," says Oswalt. "I have my doubts that the politics of assimilation strengthen the voice of any marginalized group."
On the other hand, even if someone is out of the closet, it's not easy to identify a person's sexual orientation by how they look.
Every Wednesday night, a snug and mellow little Shibuya bar hosts a night called Chestnut and Squirrel, or "kuri to risu" in Japanese. The air is filled with the smell of what organizers call "dyke food," the sounds of ice clinking in so-called "dyke drinks" and the chatter of over a dozen international women.
They may all be there for one common reason, but not one looks much like another.
Within the lesbian "community" are several pocket communities divided by members such as political activists, party girls who are into cruising the bar scene, career women or lesbians with children.
"Sometimes people think that just because two people are lesbians, they're going to get along," says American EV. "But the truth is, I'm not defined by 'being a lesbian.' I'm myself. Being gay is part of who I am, but it's not all of who I am. We all have something in common, but it's just one thing that we have in common. It's not a hobby, like 'I'm gay on Wednesday nights but I scuba dive on Saturdays.' "
Lesbians are all around. They're our nurses, our teachers and our Saturday scuba diving buddies. They're even our friends and our sisters. They just blend in really well, sometimes to the point of invisibility.
"Minority, minority, minority," says Olivia Moss, who wrote her thesis for Cambridge University on Japanese lesbianism in the 1990s.
"For foreign working women in Tokyo, the minority of being foreign, within the minority of being lesbian, within the minority of being a working woman, means that it's no surprise we're 'invisible' on a large scale. Add to this the population who are able to be 'out' at work, and the minority chain just goes on and on and the numbers decrease with the chain."
As Japan has yet to pass same-gender rights or antidiscrimination laws, most women don't fully come out, thus feeding the myth that lesbians don't exist in Japan.
"There's a fear among both foreign and Japanese women that it wouldn't just be taboo but there's a risk of losing your job or of alienating yourself from the so-called straight society," says Moss. Though Kanako Otsuji, an Osaka lawmaker, took a step forward by coming out publicly at last August's gay pride parade in Tokyo, Japanese lesbians have long been lacking public role models.
In 1980, well-known pop singer Naomi Sagara saw her career collapse as she was banished by the public after her former partner announced she was a lesbian.
"I didn't come out until I was 32," says Chu, who is lovingly referred to as Momma and has been helping organize "dyke weekends" (thrice a year get-togethers in Saitama) for over 10 years, as well as hosting food and drinks at Chestnut and Squirrel for four years.
"It's all about repression. I only knew about Naomi Sagara. She was lesbian and it was bad news. But then KD Lang was so cool. When I saw her sing at The Grammys, I thought 'I'm lesbian!' It was finally time for me to consider my sexuality. It must be a visible positive image for women to want to come out."
Chu says lesbian activities hit their peak in 1994, coinciding with the American feminist movement, when leaders of groups in Japan all worked together.
She says since then it has calmed down and because groups have different agendas they have gone their own ways.
Recently Japanese lesbians have been going their own way, with an increasing number choosing the Internet, rather than public places, to meet other women.
"The Net is different from meeting in a bar. I want more. People have lives and experiences, not just parties," says Ayano, who has been meeting Internet friends around Chiba for daytime activities like horseback riding and swan watching since September.
For some, following the personals on the Internet has compromised the strength of lesbian communities.
"Women can lead double-lives and that counteracts what the possibilities can be. It's easy to find a relationship on the Net by speed dating, but you end up closeting yourself and it affects the structure of that minority group. So then we don't fight for visibility because we've disappeared," says Moss.
"We need to encourage a community where women can express themselves. I feel like the foreign community has a moral obligation to care, contribute and support.
"It's time to work toward building self-awareness within our own foreign lesbian community -- and find ways of breaking down any barriers between ourselves and other communities."
But because of language barriers, the transitory nature of foreigners and the lack of same-gender spousal visas, there are different agendas for the foreign and Japanese lesbian communities.
Perhaps one of the challenges is how to respect the different agendas while at the same time building a strong political base.
Until a broader spectrum of visibility exists, public blindness remains and stigmas are continually reinforced by images of lesbianism brought to the mainstream.
"There are still many who believe in that there are virtually no lesbians in the real Japanese society," says Maki Kimura, a staff member of the Kansai Queer Film Festival and partner of Otsuji.
"A market where feminine lesbians are objectified and consumed as objects of sexual desire by heterosexual men, say through pornography, has developed.
"There are also a great number of lesbians who marry men due to economic concerns, partly because wage differences are still large between women and men in Japan.
"Even though we describe it as a community, there is not enough sharing of information with each other. Except for personals on the Internet, it's a big problem that there is virtually no media to link Japanese lesbians," says Kimura.
"I want to cut off the vicious cycle of discrimination and prejudice. The more we become visible, the more a systematic change favorable for us will be fostered."
PA/F (Performance Art/Feminism): Space monthly events in Waseda include performances, fashion shows, speeches by prominent members and contributors to the Japanese lesbian community.
LOUD: Resource center and rights group for lesbian and bisexual women in Tokyo 's Nakano district; weekly events and information service.
The Kansai Queer Film Festival is trying its best to reach all the remote parts of Japan (currently in Aomori Prefecture) and welcomes any support for festival fundraising
Tokyo International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival
Tokyo Lesbian and Gay Parade
Send comments to: firstname.lastname@example.org
日本語訳（ROAD OF THE MONKEY まめたのモンキーなブログ2006年03月02日）
Views from the street
By MELANIE BURTON
Melanie Burton asked people if they support adoption for gay couples.
There are a lot of bad two-parent hetero families People say kids should be raised in a "normal environment," but I'm not sure what that is. If two gay people are going to do a good job then I have no problems with it.
Graphic designer, 32
I'm for it. I think that everyone should have a chance to adopt a child. I have known more homosexual couples that have stayed together longer than hetero couples, who are also loving and kind and would make great parents.
I think it's okay for a gay couple to adopt if the couple love each other. And if they have good jobs and can properly support the children, then yeah. But I can't really see it happening in Japan for a long time.
I support it. If the parents-to-be are responsible, then why should a child go without the love and attention they would in an orphanage. I do have a problem in that if gay people are cross dressers, they need to respect the child.
Bar worker, 23
I don't, definitely. I wouldn't like to have a mum and dad male, or all women. Like, "Hi, my mum's Jack and my dad is Frank." I think kids need one parent of each gender. I wouldn't like that to happen to me, so I don't support it.
Fashion marketer, 24
I'm a bit divided on the whole thing. I think that in principle it's fine, but it might be a bit hard on the children when they're at school, with teasing from other kids. But I think it will gradually become more accepted.
The Japan Times: Feb. 28, 2006
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