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銀の森へ トランスアメリカ 沢木耕太郎 (朝日 2006/08/07夕刊芸能面)
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わたる's blog 2006年08月06日
<企画告知> 新木場事件を考える ～ 今回の事件をどう捉えるか メディア報道を踏まえて考える ～ 「あるゲイの日常。(2104)」 [ イベント告知 ]
Schwarzkopf's Career Had Somber Side: Norman Lebrecht (Update1)
Aug. 4 (Bloomberg) -- The soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, who died yesterday at the age of 90 at her home in Schruns, Austria, fashioned herself twice in the image of power.
Endowed with a magnificent voice and trained by the finest teachers in 1930s Berlin, she cozied up to the Nazis, joined the party and, according to her assiduous biographer Alan Jefferson, acted as an eager informant on less enthusiastic colleagues in opera houses.
Rumors linked her amorously with Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, who operated a vigorous casting couch, and subsequently with the notorious Hans Frank, music-loving governor-general of occupied Poland who was hanged at Nuremberg in 1946. Schwarzkopf sang in Poland repeatedly during the Holocaust years. She subsequently denied any involvement with the Nazis; when confronted with proof of her party membership, she dismissed it airily as ``like joining a union.''
As a member of the prodigious Vienna Opera cast after the war, Schwarzkopf was spotted by Walter Legge, an ambitious and unscrupulous EMI producer who brought her to London to make records, join Covent Garden and become his second wife (the first, soprano Nancy Evans, was quietly discarded).
Blonde, bubbly voiced and more elegant than the norm in austere Britain, Schwarzkopf was a hit with opera audiences in carefully chosen roles from Mozart to Strauss that showcased her effulgent beauty and rock-solid technique, an ability to take long lines without so much as a flutter of self-doubt.
With Legge as her mentor, she starred in dozens of mainstream opera recordings at the dawn of the LP and stereo boom, many of them conducted by Legge's other Nazi catch, Herbert von Karajan -- most famously, their 1957 recording of ``Der Rosenkavalier.'' As the music industry waxed mighty, Schwarzkopf became a fixture in any home that owned classical records and, with her husband and the conductor, enjoyed a wealth unprecedented in the previously austere classical sphere.
Not all, however, was as rosy as it seemed. Her relationship with Legge was mutually abusive, often vocally so. She fell out with von Karajan after he refused to help her husband when he was sacked by EMI for making heavy profits from an orchestra he owned on the side.
Her unpopularity with fellow singers was an ill-kept secret. Schwarzkopf held herself apart from backstage life and shared little of her art, even in master classes where she seemed more intent on disciplining young singers than encouraging them.
She retired from opera in 1971 and from lieder singing on Legge's death eight years later. Self-regarding to the last, when she appeared on BBC's Desert Island Discs, a radio program where celebrities pick eight albums they consider indispensable, Schwarzkopf chose her own records.
(Norman Lebrecht is a critic for Bloomberg News. The opinions expressed are his own.)
To contact the writer on this story:
Norman Lebrecht at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Last Updated: August 4, 2006 16:25 EDT
August 4, 2006
Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, 90; Soprano Brought Elegance, Perfectionism to Opera Roles, Lieder
By Chris Pasles, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, whose luminous soprano voice and searing musical intelligence set standards for postwar singers of lieder and opera, has died. She was 90.
Schwarzkopf died peacefully at her home in Schruns, Austria, near the Swiss border, late Wednesday or early Thursday, Austrian state television reported. No cause of death was given.
One of the supreme interpreters of Mozart, Richard Strauss and Hugo Wolf, among other composers, Schwarzkopf sang with such famous conductors as Wilhelm Furtwaengler, Otto Klemperer, Vittorio de Sabata and Herbert von Karajan. She also collaborated with such eminent artists as baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau and pianist Gerald Moore.
Her interpretations of the Marschallin, the aristocratic heroine of Strauss' 1911 opera, "Der Rosenkavalier" — captured on video and recording — are considered virtually ideal, and her recording of the composer's "Four Last Songs" with conductor Otto Ackermann may merit the overused word "definitive."
At the composer's request, Schwarzkopf created the role of Anne Trulove in Stravinsky's opera "The Rake's Progress" in Venice in 1951. Her other operatic roles included Violetta in "La Traviata," Gilda in "Rigoletto," Mimi in "La Boheme" and the title character in "Madame Butterfly." But her repertory was wide and included an unforgettable account of the title role in Franz Lehar's "The Merry Widow."
"She was mannered. She was beautiful. She was a perfectionist," Times music critic Mark Swed said Thursday. "With her exceptional elegance, extraordinarily fine musicianship and creamy, gorgeous voice, she was simply irresistible. Opera's Garbo, she was probably the most sexually inviting Marschallin of all time."
But, Swed added, "all it took was a short Schubert song for her to wrap an audience around her little finger. And once she had you, she never let go."
Schwarzkopf was born Dec. 9, 1915, in Jarotschin in what was then eastern Germany; it became the Polish town of Jarocin after World War I. As a teenager, she studied at the Berlin Musikhochschule, now part of the Berlin University of the Arts. An erroneous analysis by her first teacher, who thought she was a contralto, nearly derailed her career. But her mother recognized the error and ordered her to change teachers.
Schwarzkopf made her operatic debut as a Flower Maiden in Wagner's "Parsifal" at the Berlin State Opera in 1938. Within two years, she was singing leading parts, including such staggeringly highflying roles as Zerbinetta in Strauss' "Ariadne auf Naxos."
After her recital debut as a singer of lieder, or art songs, in 1942 in Vienna, she was engaged by conductor Karl Boehm to sing at the Vienna Staatsoper, but a bout of tuberculosis forced her to rest for a year. She made her debut there in 1944, but the house was soon shuttered because of Allied bombing.
After the war, however, she became a leading member of the Vienna company. Her "de-Nazification" was delayed because of conflicting statements she made to Allied authorities about party membership, but she was allowed to resume her career.
That issue would come back to haunt her.
When she made her American recital debut at Town Hall in New York in 1953, she was picketed over allegations that she had joined the Nazi Party in 1938 while a young singer in the Deutsche Oper ensemble in Berlin. The protests soon died out, but rumors about her party membership continued. The singer remained silent.
When new material came out in 1983, Schwarzkopf admitted having joined the party, telling the New York Times that year: "Everyone at the opera joined. We thought nothing of it. We just did it."
The controversy resurfaced when she was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1992 and, especially, in 1996, when Alan Jefferson wrote the first comprehensive biography of her. Still, Jefferson concluded that she was more career-driven than a devoted Nazi believer. Schwarzkopf, who was known to have a prickly and tough personality, did not respond to the book.
Her postwar international career began to take off in 1953 after she married British record producer Walter Legge, who was often considered her Svengali. Their collaborations for EMI, which began in 1946 and ended in 1979, were beloved and remain among the label's top sellers.
Former Times music critic Martin Bernheimer called a four-record set covering 1946 to 1955, which was released in 1986, "one of the most staggeringly beautiful collections ever to grace the catalog." A three-CD set, "The Elisabeth Schwarzkopf Songbook," was issued in 1995. Her recording legacy is documented in "Elisabeth Schwarzkopf: A Career on Record" by Alan Sanders and J.B. Steane, published by Amadeus Press.
Schwarzkopf and Legge also taught master classes for aspiring singers at the Juilliard School in New York in 1976. Legge died in 1979.
Schwarzkopf made her La Scala debut in Milan, Italy, as the Countess in Mozart's "The Marriage of Figaro" in 1949, her U.S. opera debut as the Marschallin at the San Francisco Opera in 1955 and her Metropolitan Opera debut, again as the Marschallin, in 1963.
Her last operatic performance was also in that role, in Brussels in 1971.
She made a farewell recital tour — which included a stop at El Camino College in Torrance — in 1975.
Schwarzkopf had her critics. Some thought her meticulous attention to interpretive detail at the expense of long, flowing lines precious. Others called her a cold, calculating performer, lacking spontaneity.
Schwarzkopf, who became a British subject in the 1950s, published her husband's memoirs in 1982 and her own memoirs 20 years later. The two had no children.
Among her relatives is a nephew, U.S. Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf, who led American forces in the Persian Gulf War in 1991.
Funeral arrangements have not been announced.
Some of Elisabeth Schwarzkopf's works on compact disc:
Richard Strauss, "Four Last Songs." Philharmonia Orchestra, Otto Ackermann, conductor. (EMI)
Richard Strauss, "Der Rosenkavalier." Philharmonia Orchestra, Philharmonia Chorus, Loughton Girls School Chorus, Herbert von Karajan, conductor. (EMI)
Gustav Mahler, Symphony No. 2. Philharmonia Orchestra, Philharmonia Chorus, Otto Klemperer, conductor. (EMI)
Gustav Mahler, "Das Knaben Wunderhorn." London Symphony Orchestra, George Szell, conductor. (EMI)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Le Nozze di Figaro." Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Vienna State Opera Chorus, Herbert von Karajan, conductor. (EMI)
Giuseppe Verdi, "Falstaff." Philharmonia Orchestra, Philharmonia Chorus, Herbert von Karajan, conductor. (EMI)
Richard Wagner, "Die Meistersinger," Herbert von Karajan, conductor. Bayreuth Festival Orchestra, Bayreuth Festival Chorus. (Naxos Historical)
Hugo Wolf, "Italienisches Liederbuch." Gerald Moore, piano. (EMI)
Franz Schubert, Lieder. Edwin Fischer, piano. (EMI)
Researched by John Jackson, Los Angeles Times
Obituary: Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, 90, dazzling operatic soprano
By Anthony Tommasini The New York Times
THURSDAY, AUGUST 3, 2006
Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, the renowned German-born soprano and one of the most intelligent and dazzling artists of her time, died Thursday at her home in western Austria. She was 90. Her death was reported by Austrian state television, The Associated Press said.
To her many admirers, Schwarzkopf was a peerless interpreter of Strauss's Marschallin, Mozart's Donna Elvira and other operatic roles. But her luster was tainted in her later years by revelations that she had lied about the extent of her association with the Nazis during World War II.
For a singer of such unquestionable stature, Schwarzkopf's work was controversial. In her prime, she possessed a radiant lyric soprano voice, impressive technical agility and exceptional understanding of style. From the 1950s to the '70s, she was for many listeners the high priestess of the lieder recital, a sublime artist who brought textual nuance, interpretive subtlety and elegant musicianship to her work.
But others found her interpretations calculated, mannered and arch (the "Prussian perfectionist," one critic called her), and complained that in trying to sing with textual vitality, Schwarzkopf resorted to crooning and half-spoken dramatic effects.
Connoisseurs and critics could be surprisingly divided about her basic vocal gifts. Will Crutchfield, reviewing some live recordings of Schwarzkopf in recital, wrote in The New York Times in 1990: "It was always clear that she had a superior voice (a smooth, glamorous lyric soprano) and superior technical command." Yet Peter Davis, writing in The Times in 1981, stated that her extraordinary career was "a triumph of intelligence and willpower over what was basically an unremarkable voice."
The consensus, however, is that in roles like the Marschallin and other Strauss heroines (the title role of "Ariadne auf Naxos," the countess in "Capriccio"), Mozart's Fiordiligi and Countess Almaviva, and Wagner's Eva and Elsa, she could sing incomparably, with shimmering tone and richness, and charismatic presence.
She had light hair and deep-set gray eyes, and she was an uncommonly beautiful woman, despite a visible gap between her two front teeth that she never bothered to correct. For a time in her younger years she pursued a career as a film actress and might have succeeded had she continued.
A hard-working, self-challenging singer, she performed 74 roles in 53 operas, including Anne Trulove in the world premiere of Stravinsky's "Rake's Progress" in 1951. Her lieder repertory included hundreds of songs by Schubert, Schumann, Mozart and Strauss, and she was a pioneering champion of the songs of Hugo Wolf, which she sang with insight and affecting beauty.
Olga Maria Elisabeth Frederike Schwarzkopf was born on Dec. 9, 1915, in Jarocin near Poland, in an area that had historically been claimed as part of Prussia.
It was not until after her formal training, in 1938, when she began singing with the Berlin State Opera, that Schwarzkopf came into her own vocally.
During this time she gained a reputation as a soprano fiercely determined to leap quickly from the small roles typically assigned a newcomer into substantive parts. The director of the company, Wilhelm Rode, had won the favor of Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi propaganda minister. One reason Schwarzkopf later gave for cooperating with the Nazis was that it was incumbent on aspiring singers in the company to support the party.
But until the 1980s, she maintained that she had never officially joined the Nazi party. She denied her membership in three Allied questionnaires in 1945, a time when former party members were usually barred from public performance in Germany during the occupation.
In 1982, however, a music historian at the University of Vienna, Oliver Rathkolb, published a doctoral dissertation that included details of her party membership, based on documents discovered in the Allied Denazification Bureau in Vienna that were subsequently moved to the National Archives in Washington.
In an interview with The Times in 1983, Schwarzkopf denied she had been a member of the party. But when told of these documents by The Times, she admitted that she had joined the party. "We thought nothing of it," she said. "We just did it."
In other interviews, she quoted in her defense the first line of Tosca's famous aria: "Vissi d'arte, vissi d'amore," which translates, "I lived for art, I lived for love."
Her breakthrough had come with the dauntingly difficult coloratura role of Zerbinetta in "Ariadne auf Naxos," which she first sang in late 1940. Her performance won the attention of Maria Ivogun, the soprano who had created the role in the opera's 1912 premiere. Ivogun took on Schwarzkopf as a private student, coaching her in the high soprano repertory, and training her as a lieder singer, which led to Schwarzkopf's being engaged by the Vienna State Opera.
Engagements followed at the first post-war Salzburg Festival in 1947, when she worked with the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler, and in subsequent summers, when she formed a close working relationship with the conductor Herbert von Karajan.
Also in 1947, she traveled on tour with the Vienna State Opera to London, where she performed in "Don Giovanni" and "Fidelio" at Covent Garden. She achieved an enormous success and this led to her being invited to join the newly founded Covent Garden company. She sang with the company for the next five years, performing not just her German repertory, but also Violetta, Mimi, Gilda, and Massenet's Manon, all in English.
Renowned soprano Schwarzkopf dead
Opera giant was 90
Thursday, August 3, 2006 Posted: 2013 GMT (0413 HKT)
VIENNA, Austria (AP) -- Famed soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, one of the greatest voices of the 20th century, died at her home in western Austria early Thursday, state television reported. She was 90.
Schwarzkopf, ranked alongside Maria Callas as a giant of the opera and concert stage, died about 1:15 a.m. in the town of Schruns in Austria's westernmost province of Vorarlberg, where she most recently lived, state broadcaster ORF said, citing a local funeral home director. No cause of death was given.
Schwarzkopf, who retired in 1975, captivated audiences and critics alike during a career that spanned four decades.
Her leading roles, ranging from Elvira in Mozart's "Don Giovanni" to the Marschallin in Richard Strauss' "Der Rosenkavalier," were immortalized on records and CDs. So were her recitals of lieder -- German songs of a lyrical, often popular character.
After her retirement she admitted having applied to join the Nazi Party in 1939 but she said it was "akin to joining a union" so that should could further her singing career.
Performing with an array of famous conductors, including Wilhelm Furtwaengler, Otto Klemperer, Vittorio de Sabata and Herbert von Karajan, the German-born soprano was a "diva assoluta," an absolute star.
"Perhaps never again will there be a recitalist like her," wrote Andre Tubeuf, one of Europe's most influential music critics and one of her many enthusiastic admirers.
Schwarzkopf was born December 9, 1915, in Jarotschin in what was then eastern Germany, but which became the Polish town of Jarocin in the redrawing of national boundaries after World War I ended three years later.
Her family moved to Berlin, where she became a prize-winning student at the Berlin Hochschule fuer Musik, now part of the Berlin University of the Arts.
A wrong analysis by her first voice teacher, who thought she was a contralto, almost thwarted her ambitions, she recalled later. Her mother recognized the danger and made her change teachers.
Schwarzkopf first was paid to sing as a member of the chorus in a 1937 recording of Mozart's "The Magic Flute" under the baton of Sir Thomas Beecham.
One year later, she made her operatic debut at the Berlin Municipal Opera as one of the flower maidens in Richard Wagner's "Parsifal." Given short notice, she learned the part overnight. Two years later she already was singing prominent parts, including as Zerbinetta in Strauss' "Ariadne on Naxos."
Tuberculosis forced her to rest for a year, just after she was signed by the Vienna State Opera. Following recovery in 1944, she could sing only a few weeks in Vienna before Allied air raids sent the curtains falling on all stages.
Renowned soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf dies at 90
Thu Aug 3, 2006 4:33 PM ET
VIENNA (Reuters) - Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, among the most renowned opera and concert sopranos of the 20th century, died at her Austrian home on Thursday at the age of 90, local media reported.
The German-born Schwarzkopf sang for a galaxy of famed conductors, including Herbert von Karajan, in a career that originated with training in Berlin during Germany's Nazi era and wound up four decades later in 1975.
APA news agency said she died in the town of Schruns in western Vorarlberg province of Austria, whose Vienna State Opera elevated her to the international stage shortly after World War Two.
After Schwarzkopf retired, a biographer revealed that she had applied to join the Nazi Party in 1940. She acknowledged this but denied having been a committed Nazi, saying she sought party membership solely to advance her singing career.
She recorded signature performances as Elvira in Mozart's "Don Giovanni", the countess in his "Le Nozze di Figaro" and the Marchallin in Richard Strauss's in "Rosenkavalier, as well as renditions of German "lieder", or popular lyrical songs.
Known for her charm and vivacity, Schwarzkopf appeared at the world's greatest concert halls from Covent Garden to La Scala and the Metropolitan in New York.
"She sang with the nuanced phrasing of a subtle actor and the fine colors of a great painter," critic Juergen Kesting wrote. Some critics felt her style was somewhat affected.
The daughter of a Prussian schoolmaster, Schwarzkopf was born in 1915 in what is now Poland.
In 1953 she married Walter Legge, a British impresario who had met her on a talent-spotting trip to Vienna in the late 1940s, and she lived in London for many years.
In 1976, Cambridge University gave her a rarely-awarded honorary doctorate of music.
She moved to Switzerland in later life before settling in Austria. In the 1980s, Schwarzkopf taught singing and her students included internationally prominent baritones Thomas Hampson and Matthias Goerne.
Elisabeth Schwarzkopf dies at 90
Charlotte Higgins, arts correspondent
Friday August 4, 2006
Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, arguably the greatest soprano of the postwar years, died peacefully in her sleep early yesterday morning at her home in Schruns in Austria, aged 90.
She entered British folk memory when, asked to appear on Desert Island Discs, she chose eight of her own recordings. She was also tinged with notoriety when it was revealed that she had been a member of the Nazi party.
She was known for her matchless lieder singing; in the opera house, she was particularly feted for her Mozart roles.
According to Edward Greenfield, the Guardian's music critic emeritus: "She was one of the very greatest of all singers. She combined every quality you wanted in a great soprano. What made her so special was the unique timbre of her voice and her unique responsiveness to words, particularly German - together with her great charisma and beauty. She was also a wonderful actress." Her unflinching brand of Prussian perfectionism was well-known. Her longtime recital partner, pianist Gerald Moore, called her "the most cruelly self-critical person imaginable", marking her scores with "arrows, stabs, slashes and digs".
She joined the Nazi party in 1938, as a young singer in the Deutsche Oper ensemble in Berlin. However, according to Greenfield: "She said that she was blackmailed - unless she joined the party, she was told, her contract would not be renewed. If that had happened, she would have had to find work in a munitions factory. Her singing career would have been at an end."
After the war, she met Walter Legge, the British record producer, who signed her to the label HMV.
She later made a prodigious number of great records under his auspices. "They had some amazing rows, but it was true love between them," said Greenfield. "He never openly praised her."
Last Updated: Friday, 4 August 2006, 09:08 GMT 10:08 UK
Soprano Schwarzkopf dies aged 90
Dame Elisabeth was one of the most admired singers of her time
Renowned German soprano Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf has died at her home in Austria at the age of 90.
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Lesbians fail to have "marriage" recognized in UK
Mon Jul 31, 10:20 AM ET
A lesbian couple lost a legal battle on Monday to have their Canadian marriage legally recognized in Britain.
In a ruling at London's High Court, senior judge Mark Potter said giving legal recognition to gay marriages would "fail to recognize physical reality."
Sue Wilkinson, 52, and Celia Kitzinger, 49, who married in British Columbia in August 2003, lost their legal fight to have their union recognized in Britain.
The marriage of a man and a woman was different to a same-sex partnership, Potter ruled.
"The majority of people, or at least of governments ... regard marriage as an age-old institution, valued and valuable, respectable and respected, as a means not only of encouraging monogamy but also the procreation of children ... in a family unit in which both maternal and paternal influences are available," the judge said.
"Abiding single sex relationships are in no way inferior, nor does English law suggest that they are by according them recognition under the name of civil partnership."
New laws which came into effect in Britain last year gave same-sex couples legal status through "civil partnerships."
But unlike those in Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and Canada, Britain's same-sex civil partnership is not a marriage.
Lawyers for the couple said their Canadian marriage should not be "downgraded" to what they considered the "lesser substitute" of a civil partnership.
The couple, who have been together for 16 years, claimed their marriage was valid under the European Convention of Human Rights. They spent their life savings to bring the legal challenge.
The couple said the judgment was "deeply disappointing" for themselves and for same-sex couples across the country and said it would one day be swept aside.
"Denying the validity of our marriage upholds discrimination and inequality," Wilkinson said. "This judgment will not stand the test of time."
Gay rights campaigner Peter Tatchell said the existence of both civil partnerships and marriage was a form of "sexual apartheid."
"To deny same sex marriages conducted in Canada the same recognition as heterosexual marriages in Canada strikes me as a case of overt discrimination," he said outside court.
The judge insisted heterosexual marriages and same-sex partnerships were not the same thing.
"Parliament has not called partnerships between persons of the same-sex marriage, not because they are considered inferior to the institution of marriage but because, as a matter of objective fact and common understanding ... they are indeed different," Potter said.
Human rights campaign group Liberty, which gave the couple legal support, said the ruling was wrong.
"I have no doubt that today's judgment will in due course be viewed as being out of step with contemporary values," Liberty legal officer Joanne Sawyer said in a statement.
But, Stonewall, a charity which campaigns for gay and lesbian equality, said civil partnership already gives couples the same legal and financial security as marriage.
"Civil partnership has all the rights of marriage anyway, including pensions," a Stonewall spokesman said. "There are a lot of gay couples out there that don't want it called marriage."
Family law solicitor Richard Hogwood, of lawyers Speechly Bircham, said the government would be relieved the ruling did not undermine the civil partnership law.
Had the couple won their case, the argument for same-sex marriage "would have been invested with a great deal more force," he said.
British court denies marriage of 2 women
By DAVID STRINGER, Associated Press Writer
Mon Jul 31, 11:40 AM ET
A British court refused to recognize the same-sex marriage of two university professors Monday, ruling that marriage has long been accepted in Britain as a union between a man and a woman.
Sue Wilkinson, 49, and Celia Kitzinger, 52, wed in Vancouver, Canada, in 2003 and had asked London's High Court for legal recognition of the marriage. They argued that their relationship was like that of any other married couple and that, by calling it a civil partnership, Britain had violated their human rights.
Mark Potter, president of the High Court's Family Division, ruled there was a "long-standing definition and acceptance" that marriage refers to a relationship between a man and a woman, primarily intended to raise children.
"To accord a same-sex relationship the title and status of marriage would be to fly in the face of the (European) Convention (on Human Rights) as well as to fail to recognize physical reality," Potter said.
However, Potter said lasting single-sex relationships were "in no way inferior" to relationships between a man and women.
"We are deeply disappointed by the judgment, not just for ourselves but for other gay couples and families," Wilkinson said after walking from the courtroom holding Kitzinger's hand. "It perpetuates discrimination and it sends out the message that lesbian and gay marriages are inferior."
Potter said that he believed people across England and Europe respected the concept of marriage and believed it was an important means of protecting the traditional family unit.
"The belief that this form of relationship is the one which best encourages stability in a well-regulated society is not a disreputable or outmoded notion based upon ideas of exclusivity, marginalization, disapproval or discrimination against homosexuals," Potter said.
Wilkinson and Kitzinger were told by Potter they have the right to challenge the ruling at Britain's Court of Appeal.
But Kitzinger said their life's savings have been exhausted by the court's decision that they must pay the government's $46,590 in legal costs.
"We are hopeful we will be able to appeal but need help to fund the cost, which will likely be the same amount again," Kitzinger told The Associated Press.
"Though we're disappointed, we are sure there will be a day — within our lifetimes — when there will be equality for same-sex marriage," she said. "This judgment will not stand the test of time."
The Netherlands, Canada, Belgium and Spain have legalized same-sex marriage, while several other European countries have laws similar to Britain's _where same-sex couples have the right to form legally binding civil partnerships, entitling them to most of the same tax and pension rights as married couples.
In the United States, only the state of Massachusetts allows gay marriage, while Vermont and Connecticut permit civil unions.